Bus Kiev - 80 years!
The first attempts to use the omnibus in Kiev - the forerunner of buses - were taken in the late 18 th century. Although the second half of the 19 th century Kiev was one of the leading cities of the Russian Empire, the city was not the normal public transport, except for cabs.
And then, in 1879, entrepreneur Levin bought seven omnibuses, designed to carry 8 passengers, and began their operation in Kiev. Despite the cheapness of the fare in comparison with the cabbies, this form of transport soon ceased to exist. Is because of all was the poor technical condition of the omnibuses and their lack of on the streets. In those days omnibuses can be compared with current cargo "minibuses" which carried two times more passengers than can normally pair, the vehicle.
At the end of the first decade of the twentieth century City Council has developed a draft entry into operation in Kiev eight bus lines to transfer them to the concession. But to realize this project is not fully succeeded because of the lack of entrepreneurs willing to invest money in such a dubious and costly exercise. While in Kiev, has prospered with an extensive network of tram and bus companies could simply fold up.
Bus traffic in Kiev began a few times: in 1911 and 1913, but after a while ceased operation of bus lines, and this type of transport do not build trust with the people of Kiev. These buses were placed in Lukyanovka tram.
December 10, 1925, after the establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine, the capital was established the first regular bus service on the route "Gr. Third International - st. Pyatakov L. (contemporary European Square. - Str. Saksaganskogo). On the route worked buses brands Fiat and Daimler-Benz (by today's standards they can be called minibuses).
In 1929 the bus fleet of Kiev became the first Soviet supplemented by buses, built on the basis of trucks: I-3, I-6, AMO-4 and AMO-F15.
In 1932 in Kiev began to arrive awkward and primitive machines ZIS-8, and in 1938 - quite elegant ZIS-16. Before the Great Patriotic War in Kiev was the order of 100 buses, but they had no significant effect on the volume of passenger traffic, due to frequent breakdowns, imperfect design, very low carrying capacity, their small number, and finally the lack of paved roads. In the 30-ies the main mode of transport was the tram!
In 1934 near the current station Lybidska in slaughterhouses lane was organized by the "Bus-taxi base number 1. Return immediately received 20 new buses with wooden body GAZ-0330 "(16 seats). Despite the lack of spare parts and buses themselves, they worked before the Great Patriotic War.
It should be noted that the coaches of those years - it was actually adapted for passenger transport trucks.
The war almost completely prevented the transport connection Kiev.
In 1945, the restoration of the bus sector, and in June 1946 in the capital, was organized by the Bus Charters fleet number 1 on the street Vassilkovskaya that exists today. He was 13 years ago was the only bus park in Kiev. ZIS-155 on the route № 36
In 1946, cars began to arrive from the factory of the Stalin-ZIS-154. This was the first model, created not on the chassis of the truck. ZIS-154 - a real bus wagon layout, with a revolutionary level of comfort for passengers. It ZIS-154, together with Kapotnya cars GAZ-0330, ZIS-16 and Gza-51 bus fleet after the war was in Kiev.
In 1951 in Kiev began arriving usovershenstvoavnnye buses ZIS-155. Together with the ZIS-154 for the decade they became the basis of the bus fleet in Kiev.
In 1958 Kiev routes appeared and buses with the logo of PAZ-652. Small 45-timestnye cars with two narrow doors, broke traffic on the lines with low passenger traffic. In 1968, this bus was called PAZ-672 after upgrading. It is well settled down in the narrow streets of the private sector in the surgery and on screen, a mouse trap and the area Assembler.
Tellingly, used on routes Lasik only 1 st park, where there were more than 50 units. Later Works of Pavlovsky on Oka supplied to us in the city a new model of PAZ-3205, and it still can still be seen on the few remaining PAZovskih routes, such as number number 12, 19, 28, 111. Its modernized successor is not rare, and in taxi routes. Grooves in the AP № 1
In 1959, on the left bank was opened on the second bus fleet (the address of a street. Friendship of Peoples, 40). Some bus routes were transferred to service in the newly opened business.
Buses carrying passengers from the area of Stalin in the Old and New Darnitsa on Pechersk, Stalinka in the suburbs. Gradually branched bus network in Kiev. It was the first buses arrived at the new arrays: Sotsgorod, Voskresenka, Vodopark, Forest, Obolon, Troyeschina, Kharkov.
In the early 60's the mass arrival of the first Ukrainian buses LAZ-695. Rapidly displacing older ZIS-155 and filling the new routes Chokolovki and pleasure, and Nivok Borschagivka, Voskresenka and Akademgorodok, new Laz made up the bulk of the park foundation of Kiev in 60-70s respectively. In 1964 he began to flow model "LAZ-695E, with an air intake on the roof. LAZ-695M near the Palace of LAZ-695 SportaAvtobus proved so successful and reliable, that some of the architectural and technological changes (695M, 695N), went on to be the main bus in the city until the mid 70 years. In the 80 years Laz with Ikarus worked on many lines. And even today, the legendary intimate 695-th of the previous day found on the Kiev lines.
In 1965, № 1 in the AP, there were 367 buses, including buses LAZ was 267, slightly less than the cars were in the AP № 2. AP № 1 serves 42 urban routes.
Only 67-68 years on the routes of the city by LAZ competitors appeared in the form of the Hungarian Ikarus-620 in 1 and 2 parks (later models 556 and 180) and LiAZ-677 in the ATP-09125 and 09123, which began work on the most congested areas, in key areas of new buildings. LiAZ-677 Square Brezhnev Buses LiAZ-677 does not become so widespread in the city, as the Laz-695, or Icarus, but not less than 300 buses of this model in 3, 4, 5 parks from 1968 to 1990 were taken Kiev on 5 right bank, and only in 2004, the last "elephant" - a nickname was among the drivers LiAZ - descended from a distance.
In 1973, in Kyiv on the route № 49 were tested first Ukrainian coach trains of two coupled buses LAZ-695M. Tests of this kind will be held after almost 30 years, and in the 70 years with a large number of passengers were called upon to handle articulated Ikarus-180 "(as they called them," Fantomas "), the good sister CMEA aid is provided without problems. Ikarus-180 route number 10 in the AP № 2
Since the mid 70 years old Hungarian Ikarus buses becoming increasingly conquering the streets of Kiev, so Ikarus-556 articulated and Ikarus-180 on 1 and 2 bus parks, began to work on routes with high passenger traffic. 180-I model - it was almost a show, for the bus with two lounges, interconnected corrugated transition was very exotic.
All those years in the city came to the test buses of various plants and structures, but few of them remained in Kiev, so long as, for example, well, just well-known family of Icarus -200. We started to do these buses in 1973. Ikarus-556 in the AP number 2Trehdverny - Icarus 260, later articulated - Ikarus-280 with four doors (in common parlance "accordion"). These yellow buses with large windows and spacious interior have been almost as credit to the city in 1980, so there were many, especially on the left bank.
In 1981 it was open bus fleet number 6, which was to serve a new residential area Obolon. Two years later, the bus appeared on Vygurovschine-Troyeschina - the largest residential array of Kiev, the population is comparable to the regional center of Ukraine. The park is in the best years were 400 "Icarus", which served Troyeschina, Obolon, Minsk array and the husbandman. Ikarus-280 on the route № 48
Peak flowering of a bus in Kiev falls on mid-80's, when constantly open new routes and constantly updated fleet.
In 1981, on Route 103 turned out 897 buses in peak hour, then in the second half of 80 to 110 routes operated more than 1000 buses in rush hour.
In 1982-1984 Lviv plant of the city presented a new model of middle-class bus LAZ-4202, but a small party of these machines was not very tweaked, and in a few years was written off. Ikarus-260 on the route № 38
In 1989-90 in the 5 th fleet to replace obsolete LiAZ-677 arrived batch of twenty new LiAZ. The 12-meter long machine model 5256, with the apparent modernity and comfort, were extremely poor quality, and will never buy for Kiev.
In 1990 Kiev was the last Icarus, and Hungary became the mark for us by history. For three years, machines of this class is not available in Kiev in general.
Only in 1992 LAZ finally mastered the production of the upgraded model 42021, and in 1993, these buses in the amount of 65 pieces added to suffer from a shortage of machines bus fleets. LAZ-42021 in the AP № 5
Also in 1993, began a new era coming Lviv machines in Kiev. Blue and white car with the engine Renault tested on a route number 3 "Leningradskaya Square. - Goloseevskaya Sq.," And for 3 consecutive years in the city parks received 138 buses of this model.
The disintegration of the Union could not help but reflect on bus transport in Kiev: constantly declining issues on the existing routes, shortened long routes. Continuing declining issues on the existing routes, shortened long routes. Felt The acute shortage of rolling stock: for the first half of the 90-ies skewed picture of "Icarus", departing from the stop, which still left many passengers became normal. The situation was similar to passenger traffic and trams and trolleybuses. LAZ-52523 near the station m 'Forest'
Critical situation with the passenger traffic in Kiev, saved only by the introduction of taxi transport. The first to perform the carriage of passengers without providing benefits become bus fleets in 1996. Buses appeared with stencils "taxi bus", the first car appeared on the express routes serving Troyeschina (№ 21K, 26e, 57e, 59e), later appeared routes do not repeat the route of public transport. It was during this difficult period for routes out not demanded in full for the city, buses with long distance routes - LAZ-699r and Ikarus-250 (more than 50 units). Mostly they were used to express and taksobusnyh routes.
In 1997 appeared "Gazelle" and the famous Orange Pskovavto "Moscow JSC Avtosvit." "Minibuses" just a normal complement of urban transport, but to replace him could not.
Mid 90-ies characterized the opening of new bus routes, mostly to express type serving the "sleeping" areas. Routes were opened troeschinskie number number 14E, 35E, 67e, 64e, 113e, 114e, 115e, previously opened express number number 21e, 110e.
Before reaching the metro almost non-stop for 10 minutes before the main routes, they enjoyed great popularity among the passengers, especially in the morning.
In 1997, some ATP appeared practice of issuing the usual routes of buses in an express mode (in particular, the number of lines number 2, 9, 90). Soon express carriage passed away, but their niche occupied bus. LAZ-699R route № 82
Lviv Bus Plant specifically for the needs of Kiev gathered extralarge articulated bus "LAZ-6205. These machines are designed to replace the "Ikarus-280", so not actually worked in Kiev. Only 2 buses arrived at the ATP-13028 (AP № 1), and they briefly worked on the bus route number 17. Later they were transferred to Vasyl'kivs'ke ATP, and one of the machines (Kiev right?) Until 2006 worked in Poltava.
In 1998, in Kiev received a new batch of large buses LAZ-52523, after it began receiving LAZ-52527 Single-third door.
In 2000-2001, were closed "unprofitable" routes № 24, 51, and then began a quiet stagnation Kiev bus: closed routes, decreased releases on existing routes, did not procure rolling stock in proper quantity and correct type.
What a great event in 2001, after the tender, arrived in the city 120 buses will be Volvo-B10 "and" Scania-112. These were articulated a model for suburban and not very good for intense Kiev lines. In addition, the "northern" performance cars had no air vents and a weak ventilation. Well, a very "warm" was a bus in the summer! Machines famous Swedish manufacturers were not new, they were simply written off in Sweden, and us, and it was a joy, because almost no old honored Icarus, and the lack of large machines was very high. Let today from the "Swede" has only half, but they left their mark on the history of the city bus.
Kiev Guide periodically to present new experimental machines: train "Scania low-floor" Solaris ", articulated LAZ large capacity. Unfortunately, these machines do not have to buy to work in Kiev, citing a lack of finance, simply carried away by bus. In the meantime, in the forgotten city administration stops grew until crowds of people who were forced to use incapacious and unmanageable minibuses. LAZ-A291 near the station m 'Petrovka'
Only in 2003, KCSA has announced a tender for the purchase of 145 buses, and the first machines have already started to arrive in late 2003. During 2003-2004, received 80 buses MAZ-103, 30 - jointed MAZ-105, 20 LAZ-525 270, 10 articulated LAZ-A291. Later came on 5 innovative three-axle 15-meter long vehicles Bogdan A231 Cherkassy plant. The focus of these shipments was made on low-floor vehicles, that is, the absence of steps at the door. This speeds drop-off/pick-up and makes them more comfortable for passengers.
At the same time, Lviv Bus Plant, they failed miserably tender in 2003 for lack of low-floor vehicles, the auto show "SIA-2004", introduced his low-floor copy of "LAZ-A183". MAZ-105 in the sediment on the route number 45Eta had a car that can be called a fully low-floor, in contrast to MAZ and Bogdan-231, which do not only steps 1 and 2 doors. In August 2004, the liner was tested on the taxi route number 69T. Already in May 2005 in the city began to come first production copies.
Currently in Kiev, there are more than 70 vehicles models LAZ-A183, which can rightly claim to be the best model of Europe in its class. During this year, according to a new tender is expected to supply 140 machines LAZ-A183 and 8 tourist LAZ-52081 (NeoLAZ). MAZ-103 on the street Uritskogo
There are eight bus parks in Kiev are more than 1000 buses, but unfortunately on the routes on a daily basis goes no more than 550 cars. Although today the development of our city and the increasing demands for comfort requires much more than a thousand ...
Alas, the city management is extremely harmful to the public transport policy as such, including the bus. It has long been the country out of crisis, successfully develops the capital of Ukraine Kiev, and the money in the budget of the city, too, are found, of which only 6% is spent on public transport. For example, the Czech capital Prague the same purpose spends about 40%.
In addition to lack of rolling stock in general, also did not address the need for its various types. The city is almost no particularly large buses, buses of the middle class, as well as special vehicles for express lines. LAZ-A183
But I want to believe that in his eighties Kiev bus vedet not only on the beautiful "City-Lazy", but also hundreds of other new modern buses, and be sure to disappear queues at bus stops!
And we are just passengers, as well as caring about the transport and technology enthusiasts, we heartily wish good luck buses Kiev!